Language Education Policy Studies
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Canada: Anglophone and Francophone 

The Canadian language policy has two official language education policy contexts, the Anglophone and the Francophone. The policy holds stronger in favor of one or the other depending on the region of the country. The policy on education is much different in Quebec (Riddell, 2004), which although part of Canada, is majority French-speaking as opposed to outside the province. Stacy Churchill mentions that “French speaking Canadians were severely under-represented in the ranks of federal civil servants” (2003). However, she also mentions that there are far more Francophones than Anglophones who are bilingual, excluding those in Quebec and New Brunswick, where there is a majority of monolingual speakers. Several things were evaluated in order to observe if certain aspects of the policy were in effect with the official minority language education policy (OMLE) outside of Quebec. Those that were evaluated involved instruction, facilities, and management and control (Riddell, 2004). 

On the topic of non-official languages in Canada, Patricia Duff and Duanduan Li discuss how this affects schools with Franco-/Anglophone majority speakers, positing that “learners need a sense of agency in their language learning in order to succeed” (2009). More and more schools are attempting to allow other languages in their classrooms. Minority students in Canada often learn their native language until second grade, then begin acquiring the dominant language. Riddell remarks that today in Canada a network of minority schools exists and that “252,000 students are enrolled at primary and secondary levels” (2004). This may also allow for other non-native speaking students to learn and study in bilingual programs within these schools. 


French Education in Ontario:


Schools in Canada (with distinctions in and outside of Quebec):

French Education in Canada – a Community Focus:


Improving your English Canada:


Blog on personal language education from an individual “Language Education in BC Canada”:



 Bilingual Education in Canada:


Churchill, S. (2003). Language education, Canadian civic identity and the identities of Canadians. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.


Duff, P. & Li, D. (2009). Indigenous, Minority, and Heritage Language Education in Canada: Policies, Contexts, and Issues. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des languages vivantes, 66 (1) 1-8.


Riddell, T. (2004). The Impact of Legal Mobilization and Judicial Decisions: The Case of Official Minority-Language Education Policy in Canada for Francophones Outside Quebec. Law & Society Review, 38(3), 583-609.


Vaillancourt, F., Coche, O., Cadieux, M. A., Ronson, J. L. (2012). Official language policies of the Canadian Provinces: costs and benefits in 2006. Fraser Institute. 


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This information was originally published on the website of the International Network for Language Education Policy Studies ( as

Kingfisher, B. K. (2013). Canada: Anglophone and Francophone. In F. V. Tochon (Ed.), Language Education Policy Studies (online). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin—Madison. Retrieved from: (access date). 

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